How to process steel?
The process of steel mainly includes iron making, steel making and steel rolling, which are briefly explained as follows:
1. Iron making: It is the process of reducing iron in sinter and lump ore. Coke, sinter, and lump ore, together with a small amount of limestone, are sent to a blast furnace for smelting into liquid pig iron (iron water), which is then sent to a steel mill as a raw material for steelmaking.
2. Steelmaking: It removes excessive carbon, sulfur, phosphorus and other impurities from raw materials (iron water and scrap steel, etc.) and adds appropriate alloy components.
3. Continuous casting: The molten steel is continuously injected into the water-cooled product through the intermediate tank, and after being solidified into a shell, it is pulled out from the crystallizer at a steady speed, and then cooled by water spray. After all solidification, it is cut into designated Length of continuous casting billet.
4. Rolling: The continuously cast steel ingots and continuous casting billets are rolled into various types of steel in different rolling mills by hot rolling.
There are three main methods of smelting: indirect steelmaking, direct steelmaking, and smelting reduction.
1. Indirect steelmaking method. It consists of two steps: blast furnace iron making and converter iron making. The iron ore is first melted and reduced to pig iron (high in carbon), and then the pig iron is charged into a steelmaking furnace for oxidation and refining into steel, which is the main method for mass production of modern steel smelting.
2. Direct steelmaking method. A method of smelting steel into iron by one step. Instead of using blast furnaces and expensive coke, the method uses iron ore in a direct reduction furnace to reduce carbonaceous (<1%), semi-molten hemite containing impurities with a gas or solid reducing agent.
3. Melting reduction method. A non-blast furnace ironmaking method in which iron ore is reduced to iron metal by carbon in a molten state at a high temperature, and then refined into steel by a conventional converter.
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